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Medicine

o	The Christian Commission in the FieldIn an attempt to manage the unprecedented number of sick and wounded, the Confederacy established a Medical Department. Surgeons were commissioned to serve in military hospitals and with individual units. They were assisted by nurses, stewards, matrons, and other medical personnel. The Library of Virginia's collections include a variety of different types of records that pertain to those who were involved with this system, including the papers of surgeons and other medical personnel, hospital registers, personal papers of soldiers who were hospitalized or of their family and friends, and unit records that include medical information on individual soldiers.

How to Search the Catalogs:

Conduct a keyword or subject search heading in the catalog using the following examples of Library of Congress subject headings.

Chimborazo Hospital (Richmond, Va.)
Confederate States of America Army Medical
Confederate States of America Surgeon
Medicine Military
Military Hospitals Confederate States of America
Surgeons Confederate States of America
Surgery United States Civil War, 1861-1865         
United States History Civil War, 1861-1865 Hospitals

Selected Published Resources

Apperson, John Samuel. Repairing the "March of Mars": The Civil War Diaries of John Samuel Apperson, Hospital Steward in the Stonewall Brigade, 1861–1865. Edited by John Herbert Roper; transcribed by Jason Clayman, Peter Gretz, and John Herbert Roper. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 2001.

Blanton, Wyndham Bolling. Medicine in Virginia in the Nineteenth Century. Richmond: Garrett & Massie, Inc., 1933.

Calcutt, Rebecca Barbour. Richmond's Wartime Hospitals. Gretna, La.: Penguin Publishing Co., 2005.

Chisolm, John Julian. A Manual of Military Surgery for the Use of Surgeons in the Confederate Army with an Appendix of the Rules and Regulations of the Medical Department of the Confederate Army. Charleston, S.C.: Evans & Cogswell, 1861.

Cunningham, Horace Herndon. Doctors in Gray: The Confederate Medical Service. Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press, [1958].

Green, Carol Cranmer. Chimborazo: The Confederacy’s Largest Hospital. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2004.

Houck, Peter W. A Prototype of a Confederate Hospital Center in Lynchburg, Virginia. Lynchburg, Va.: Warwick House Pub., 1986.

The Medical and Surgical History of the Civil War. Wilmington, N.C.: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 1992.

Schoeder-Lein, Glenna R. The Encyclopedia of Civil War Medicine. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2008.

Schultz, Jane E. Women at the Front: Hospital Workers in Civil War America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Waitt, Robert W. Confederate Military Hospitals in Richmond. Richmond: Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee, 1964.

Woolsey, Jane Stuart. Hospital Days: Reminiscence of a Civil War Nurse. Roseville, Minn.: Edinborough Press, 2001.
Selected Manuscript Collections

William H. Allison. Papers, 18611864. Accession 23305b.
Papers, 1861–1864, of Captain William H. Allison (1838–1904) of Richmond, Virginia, consisting of passes, furlough papers, medical certificates and notices, courts-martial, transfer papers, receipts, and other items concerning personnel of Company H, 25th Virginia Infantry Battalion. Also includes a note, 1896, with names for a possible reunion and a typewritten list of locations of Confederate hospitals in Richmond, Virginia, in 1863.

Letter of Lorin Jessie Ames, 1864 November 3 Letter of Lorin Jessie Ames, 1864 November 3, page 2 Lorin Jessie Ames. Letter, 3 November 1864. Accession 43654.
Letter, 3 November 1864, from Dr. Lorin J. Ames (1815–1891), while serving as a surgeon at a field hospital in City Point, Virginia, to his son Henry D. Ames (b. 1857) in Mount Morris, Livingston County, New York. Subjects include the weather, hospital conditions, and the suffering of the wounded.

Confederate States of America Army ListConfederate States of America. Army. List, 4 April 1865. Accession 21152.
List, 4 April 1865, of soldiers transferred from General Hospital, Farmville, Virginia, to General Hospital, Lynchburg, Virginia.

Confederate States of America. Medical Director of General Hospitals, VirginiaConfederate States of America. Medical Director of General Hospitals, Virginia. Consolidated Morning Report, 12 March 1865. Accession 19880.
Report, 12 March 1865, by Dr. William A. Carrington, Medical Director of General Hospitals in Virginia, provides the number of sick, wounded, and convalescent in the general hospitals of Richmond, as well as the number of officers, attendants, and guards on duty. Hospitals listed are: General Hospital No. 1, Chimborazo, Howard's Grove, Jackson, Louisiana, Robertson, St. Francis de Sales, Stuart, and Receiving and Wayside Hospital (General Hospital No. 9).

Letter of Samuel Moore to Dr. W. H. Dulaney, 1864William H. Dulaney. Confederate Medical Service Papers, 18641865. Accession 20417.
Papers, 1864–1865, of William H. Dulaney concerning his service as a surgeon in the Confederate army during the Civil War. Includes letters regarding promotions, leave orders, and prisoner of war exchanges.

Richard Habersham. Letters, 1864. Accession 23823.
Letters, 14–21 August and 17–18 September 1864, from Richard Habersham working at Howard's Grove Hospital in Richmond, Virginia, during the Civil War. Topics include his duties in the hospital, daily routines, news of battles, his social life, and his aspirations for the future.

Letter of Samuel Moore to Alexander H. StevensIsaac Hammond. Collection, 18391875. Accession 24335. (Click here for Finding Aid)
Collection, 1839–1875, of Isaac Hammond of New York, a Union soldier who was stationed for a time in Richmond, Virginia, and gathered various documents from the files of Governors John Letcher and William Smith, the Virginia General Assembly, the Confederate Congress, Confederate senators James M. Baker of Florida and R. M. T. Hunter of Virginia, and the Confederate adjutant general's office. The material covers a wide range of subjects including the impressments of slaves for working on Confederate and local defenses, hospitals, the plights of women and children in Virginia during the Civil War, military defenses, supplies for various companies in the Confederate army, pay vouchers, military passes, military orders, and newspapers from Richmond, Virginia, Montgomery, Alabama, and Augusta, Georgia.

Letter of Lorin Jessie Ames, 1864 November 3 Letter of Lorin Jessie Ames, 1864 November 3, page 2 Letter of Lorin Jessie Ames, 1864 November 3, page 3 Letter of Lorin Jessie Ames, 1864 November 3, page 4 William P. McCauley. Letter, 25 December 1861. Accession 41109.
Letter, 25 December 1861, sent from William McCauley (1837–1908), 42nd Virginia Infantry Regiment, Company E, while he was sick in hospital in Staunton, Virginia, to his mother. Concerns his admission to the hospital for jaundice, his subsequent rest and stay at a boarding house in Staunton, the loss of his clothing and need for more, and family matters. He also mentions in the letter that George P. Airheart (b. 1838) and Joseph B. Edington (1837–1862), both of Company E, accompanied him to the hospital. McCauley also writes an anecdote concerning James Pleasant Edington (1833–1865) of Company E.

Oscar A. Pohlig Jr. Lot 56 of Colonel William Byrd II's Richmond: It's Use for Tobacco Manufacturing under Miles Turpin, William J., William T., and A. Rufus Yarbrough; and for a Confederate Military Hospital. Accession 41269.
"Lot 56 of Colonel William Byrd II's Richmond: Its Use for Tobacco Manufacturing Under Miles Turpin, William J., William T., and A. Rufus Yarbrough; and for a Confederate Military Hospital," compiled in 1983 by Oscar A. Pohlig Jr. Includes historical information on the building located at Twenty-fifth and Franklin Streets in Richmond, Virginia, and its use since its construction in the manufacture of tobacco, and as a military hospital during the Civil War. There are photographs taken by Helen Pohlig, and copies of billheads, trade cards, and invoices, as well bibliographies and footnotes.

Isaac William Russell. Memoirs, 1912. Accession 23987.
Memoirs, 1912, of Isaac William Russell (1844–1914) of Winchester, Virginia, concerning his service as a member of the medical branch of the Confederate military. It also includes details of his life before and after the Civil War.

Henry C. Sommerville. Diary, 1862–1881. Accession 23936a.
Diary, 1862–1865, 1881, of Henry C. Sommerville (1834–1918) of Clarke County, Virginia, detailing his service as a steward and surgeon for the Confederate army during the Civil War. Somerville also describes his personal life and provides some news of the war in general.

Virginia. Department of Confederate Military Records. Hospital Records, 18631865, 1904. Accession 27684.
(Click here for Finding Aid)
Records, 1863–1865, 1904, consisting of a register of wounded from Chimborazo Hospital between August and December 1863; a register of wounded from Winchester Hospital between July and August 1864; vouchers for supplies for Chimborazo Hospital from March 1865; and an article on "The History of Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond Va., and Its Medical Officers during 1861–1865" from the Virginia Medical Semi-Monthly published in July 1904.

Statement of Joseph Wheeler, undated. Accession 40087 Statement of Joseph Wheeler, undated. Accession 40087, page 2 Joseph Wheeler. Statement, undated. Accession 40087.
Typescript copy, undated, of a statement by Joseph Wheeler, regarding the work of Julie Ann Opie Hopkins (1818–1890) during the Civil War, in establishing hospitals for Alabama soldiers. Julie and her husband, Arthur F. Hopkins, established three hospitals in Richmond, Virginia, and donated thousands of dollars to support the facilities.